Standard Amino Acid Code and Property

Amino acids are the structural units (monomers) that make up peptides or proteins. Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are encoded directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are known as “standard” amino acids.

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Basic: Arg(R), His(H), Lys(K)
Non-polar: Ala (A), Ile (I), Leu (L), Met (M), Phe (F), Pro (P), Trp (W), Val (V)
Polar uncharged: Asn (N), Cys (C), Gly (G), Gln (Q), Ser (S), Thr (T), Tyr (Y)
Acidic: Asp(D), Glu(E)

Name  Three Letter Code  One Letter Code  Side Chain M.W. PI CAS Structure
Alanine Ala A -CH3 89.09 6 56-41-7  
Cysteine Cys C -CH2SH 121.15 5.02 52-90-4  Cys
Aspartic acid Asp D -CH2COOH 133.1 2.77 56-84-8  Asp
Glutamic acid Glu E -CH2CH2COOH 147.13 3.22 56-86-0  Glu
Phenylalanine Phe F -CH2C6H5 165.19 5.48 63-91-2  Phe
Glycine Gly G -H 75.07 5.97 56-40-6  Gly
Histidine His H -CH2-C3H3N2 155.16 7.47 71-00-1  His
Isoleucine Ile I -CH(CH3)CH2CH3 131.17 5.94 73-32-5  Ile
Lysine Lys K -(CH2)4NH2 146.19 9.59 39665-12-8  Lys
Leucine Leu L -CH2CH(CH3)2 131.17 5.98 61-90-5  Leu
Methionine Met M -CH2CH2SCH3 149.21 5.74 63-68-3  Met
Asparagine Asn N -CH2CONH2 132.12 5.41 5794-13-8  Asn
Proline Pro P -CH2CH2CH2- 115.13 6.3 147-85-3  Pro
Glutamine Gln Q -CH2CH2CONH2 146.15 5.65 56-85-9  Gln
Arginine Arg R -(CH2)3NH-C(NH)NH2 174.2 11.15 74-79-3  Arg
Serine Ser S -CH2OH 105.09 5.68 56-45-1  Ser
Threonine Thr T -CH(OH)CH3 119.12 5.64 72-19-5  Thr
Valine Val V -CH(CH3)2 117.15 5.96 72-18-4  Val
Tryptophan Trp W -CH2C8H6N 204.23 5.89 73-22-3  Trp
Tyrosine Tyr Y -CH2-C6H4OH 181.19 5.66 60-18-4  Tyr